Farmers use the fenugreek both as a herb and a spice, though their flavour is similar. The leaves of this plant are available frozen, fresh or dried. Fresh leaves are used as leafy greens in curries or folded into fry-breads.
Farmers grow the fenugreek in both the cropping seasons of Rabi and Kharif in South India. The first fortnight of October during Rabi and the second fortnight of June-July during Kharif. Farmers use the number of seeds for sowing in both seasons is generally 25 kg/ha. Yields are good during Rabi season.
Farming requires the most prominent equipment, which plays a major role in agriculture processing. Tools, harvesters and tractors are the main in cultivating fenugreek; Hence, we suggest the Mahindra Yuvo tractor, which is better for increasing efficiency in the field.
How to Start Fenugreek Farming in India
Here we are describing the fenugreek cultivation process in India.
Fenugreek Farming – Climate Requirement
Fenugreek crop is a winter season crop and needs a cool climate for its proper development and growth. The aroma of fenugreek is fairly tolerant to frost and freezing. Therefore, this spice requires a comparatively cooler climate. In every region, heavy rains occur, which are not best for fenugreek cultivation in India. Cloudy weather and High humidity and, especially during the pod filling period, increase the severity of powdery mildew and aphids, affecting yield and grain quality.
Farming Cultivation – Suitable Soil
Farmers can grow the fenugreek successfully on all types of soils. However, sandy loam soil with good drainage and a pH of 6.0-7.0 is best. It is slightly tolerant of saline conditions compare to other leguminous vegetables.
Fenugreek Cultivation- Land Preparation
Farmers should do one deep ploughing and then 2 to 3 light ploughing in heavy soil. This process is sufficient to achieve a fine tilth. Light soils require less ploughing. They should plank the field immediately to conserve soil moisture. Farmers should apply pre-sow irrigation if soil moisture is low before preparation tillage.
Fenugreek Farming – Recommended Sowing Times
Farmers sow the fenugreek from September to mid-March in the plain and April to October in the hills area for leaves. For seed and grain production, the last week of October to November’ first week is the optimum time in North Indian Plains.
Farming Cultivation – Best Varieties
Pusa Kasuri, Co-1, Lam Selection-1, Pusa Early Bunching, Rajendra Kranti, RMt-1, Hisar Sonali, Hisar Mukta, Hisar Suvarna, Hisar Mashavi, AM-1, AM-2.
Fenugreek Farming – Seed Treatment
Fenugreek is a leguminous crop. It responds well to tall Rhizobium culture. Hence, you should treat it with Rhizobium meliloti Culture before sowing seeds.
Fenugreek Cultivation – Fertilizer Requirement
Farmers commonly grow fenugreek on the residual fertility of the previous crop. Leguminous crops can fix nitrogen atmospheric and require a lower dose of nitrogen. However, early and succulent leafy growth 150-200 QTL/ha well-decomposed FYM or compost is applied at the time of field preparation.
Apart from this, you should add in the soil 30-40 kg Nitrogen and 40 kg each of phosphorus and potassium at sowing. Apply nitrogen in two to three divided doses as an alternate post-harvest top dressing when fenugreek is grown from leaf production.
Fenugreek Farming – Irrigation Methods
Fenugreek requires irrigation for rapid growth. However, the depth and frequency of irrigation depend on the soil type. For better germination, farmers should first irrigate immediately after sowing. Then, farmers sow it in moist conditions. Therefore, first irrigation is given at 30 days after sowing (DAS), second at 40-45 DAS, third at 70-75 DAS, fourth at 85-90 DAS and fifth at 105-11 DAS.
They should irrigate when green leaves are used at an interval of 8 to 10 days. In general, we recommend that 4 to 5 irrigate in heavy soil and 6 to 7 irrigation in sandy loam soil. You should maintain the optimum level of moisture in the field during seed development and pod formation.
Two weeds and hoeing at 25 and 50 days after sowing are sufficient to protect the crop from weeds and maintain good ventilation. Flucoralin @ 0.75 kg/ha as pre-planting application + one hand weeding in 25 days is recommended to control weeds and yield better.
Harvesting and Yield
Fenugreek is ready for first harvesting 3-4 weeks after sowing when the plant reaches a height of 15-20 cm. To produce new shoots, cut with a sickle leaving 2-3 cm of stubble. Subsequent cuttings are done after 15-20 days. Leaves become bitter with delays in harvesting. About 5-6 cuttings can obtain from Kasuri methi at an interval of 15-20 days.
Seed crop of mango fenugreek matures in 150-160 days and Kasoori methi in 160-170 days after sowing. Farmers harvest the crop when the pods turn green to yellow. Otherwise, the seeds get scattered due to delays in harvesting. The green yield of common fenugreek varies from 70-80 quintals, and Kasoori methi ranges from 90-100 quintals/ha. The yield of mango fenugreek is 12-15 quintals/ha, and Kasoori methi gives 6-7 quintals/ha. The seed yield is high if no harvesting is done and left entirely for seed production.
Fenugreek farming requires the most important equipment, which plays a major role in agro-processing. Equipment, harvesters and tractors are the main sectors in fenugreek cultivation; Hence, we suggest the Under 100 HP Tractor.
For more information regarding the fenugreek farming Business in India, stay tuned with us.